Detroit Assembly (also known as Detroit Cadillac or Clark Street Assembly) was a General Motprs automobile factory in Detroit, Michigan. Originally opened as Cadillac Fleetwood Assembly in 1921, the factory produced Cadillacs and closed on December 23, 1987, whereupon production of Cadillac's D-bodies moved to Arlington Assembly in Texas. From 1984 to 1987, the plant also built the Oldsmobile 88 and Custom Cruiser, and the Chevrolet Caprice and Impala.
The site of the plant was redeveloped into the 88-acre Clark Street Technology Park in 1997 by General Motors and three other partners.
Formerly the Cadillac Assembly Plant, Clark Street Technology Park began its transformation in 1994. The 66-year old plant was demolished and replaced with several customized tenant structures, including the Hispanic Manufacturing Center, Vitec and Federal Express. The property sits in the southwest section of the Detroit Empowerment Zone and is the largest project to date within a federally appointed Empowerment Zone. Clark Street employs hundreds of neighborhood residents who live close enough to walk or bicycle to work.
Buick City was a massive automobile manufacturing complex in the northwest of Flint, Michigan. Elements of the 235 acre (951,000 m²) complex dated from 1904, but it became known as Buick City in 1984. The complex was closed on June 29, 1999 and demolished in March 2002. It was the last Buick plant in Flint, long a center of automobile production. The final cars built at Buick City were the Pontiac Bonneville and the Buick LeSabre..
The plant originated with Buick before the formation of General Motors.. Other elements were built by early manufacturers and suppliers like Fisher Body. GM employment in the city peaked in 1978 at 77,000, with Buick City workers reaching a high of 28,000 in the 1980s.
The Buick City concept represented a failed attempt by General Motors to ramp up production volume in response to Japanese manufacturers. However, the experiment wasn't without its successes: The 1989 Buick LeSabre built in Buick City was ranked the top car in the J.D. Power and Associates rankings for that year; it was the first American built car to show up on the list. In 1999, the year the plant was closed, Buick City won the Platinum Award. As of 2006, it was the only General Motors plant given this award.
On July 31, 2007 it was reported that a major shipping company wants to turn the old Buick City site into a shipping mecca. The company would utilize I-75, I-69, I-475, and the railroad. The shipping center could bring 600 new jobs and spur multiple small businesses around the center.
Linden, New Jersey
Linden Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Linden, New Jersey. The 2,600,000 square foot factory opened in 1937 to build Buick, Pontiac and Oldsmobile vehicles. During World War II, the plant was also used to produce fighter planes for the United States military, primarily the FM Wildcat, an improved version of the F4F Wildcat. In 1991 the facility was retooled for truck & SUV assembly. A white 2005 Chevrolet Blazer was the last vehicle to leave the line in April 2005. In July of 2007, General Motors and the City of Linden settled numerous tax appeals going back to 1983; Linden agreeing to pay GM $4.8 million and clearing the way for the sale and subsequent redevelopment of the 104-acre site, appraised at between $20 million and $40 million
Leeds Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Leeds, Missouri (Kansas City). It was closed in 1988. The factory produced the A-bodies and J-bodies.
Production had risen from the first years 300 (built that one year in Flint, Michigan) to 3,467 annual units in 1956, but no one could have predicted that what was generally considered to be a small niche vehicle would spell doom for the original St. Louis plant. Production in 1960 topped 10,000 units, a record later shattered by the 1963 mark of 21,500. They surpassed building 30,000 units by 1969, and eventually peaked at an incredible 53,807 Corvettes in 1979!
In that year, GM officially announced that all Corvette production would be moved to a vacant air conditioning plant in Bowling Green, Kentucky to enable production to flourish. The doom of the St. Louis facility was now sealed. Closed in 1980,now demolished
Wilmington Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Wilmington, Delaware. The 3,200,000-square-foot (297,000 m2) factory opened in 1947, closing its assembly line in 2009. Its final product was the GM Kappa platform sports cars. Production of the Saturn L-Series halted on June 17, 2004. In the 1950s and 1960s. GM's Boxwood Road plant was designated as a B-O-P facility, manufacturing Buicks, Oldsmobiles, and Pontiacs.
As part of the 2009 bankruptcy and restructuring of General Motors. Wilmington Assembly ceased automotive production on Tuesday, July 28, 2009. Its final product was a Pontiac Solstice convertible.[
Fisher Automotive has chosen GM's former assembly plant in Wilmington, Del., to launch its Project NINA, a plan to build family-friendly plug-in hybrid sedans that cost less than $40,000 with a federal tax credit, according to the automaker. Vice President and former Delaware senator Joe Biden joined Fisker executives for the announcement at the plant.
Fisker says it will begin production on its vehicles by late 2012; Project NINA will eventually create or support 2,000 factory jobs as well as 3,000 vendor and supplier jobs. By 2014, it expects production to enter full swing, turning out 75,000-100,000 vehicles per year. It expects to export more than half of these vehicles, which would be the largest export percentage of any domestic automaker.
The automaker will spend $175 million to retool the GM plant with the funding coming from the $528.7 million Department of Energy loan awarded to Fisker in September. Fisker currently only offers its electric sports car, the Karma.
The closure of the Wilmington plant, for the time being, marks the end of large-scale automotive production in the Northeastern United States
Tarrytown Assembly was an automobile factory in North Tarrytown, New York now known as Sleepy Hollow. Originally opened by the Stanley Steam Car Company in 1896, the plant was acquired by Maxwell-Briscoe in 1903 from the Ingersoll-Rand Drill Company. In 1913 Maxwell-Briscoe became just Maxwell. Separate portions of the complex were acquired by Chevrolet in 1914 and 1915. At this time Chevrolet was an independent company and not yet part of General Motors. In 1918 Chevrolet was integrated into General Motors. Its last vehicles produced were GM's first generation minivans, referred to by some as "dustbusters" due to their shape. These were the Chevrolet Lumina APV, Pontiac TranSport, and Oldsmobile Silhouette. It was closed in 1996 when production of minivans was moved to Doraville Assembly in Georgia.
Closed in 1996, demolished in 1999
Located in Norwood, Ohio, the Norwood Assembly Plant built General Motors cars between the years of 1923 and 1987. When it first opened the plant employed 600 workers and was capable of producing 200 cars per day. At its peak in the early 1970s it employed nearly 9,000.
The first car rolled off the assembly line on August 13, 1923. Among the cars built at Norwood were the Chevrolet Bel Air, Biscayne, Impala, Nova, Caprice, Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, and the Buick Apollo. The plant grew to cover an area of approximately 50 acres (200,000 m2) and had 3,000,000 square feet (279,000 m2) of space under roof.
The facility had a number of labor disputes, including a 174-day long strike in 1972, at the time the longest strike in GM history. As a result of the strike, 1,100 partially completed cars were scrapped or otherwise disposed of because it was not economically feasible to update them to the more stringent 1973 vehicle standards. After the strike GM opted to move Nova production away from Norwood to protect the model from future labor problems.
While newer GM plants had a one-story design, the Norwood plant had a less efficient three-story design. Additionally, the plant could not expand outward as it was surrounded by an interstate highway to the north, railroad lines to the east and west, a business district on a State Route to the west and a residential neighborhood to the south.
Citing its obsolescence, expense, and high worker absentee rate, GM announced on November 6, 1986, that the Norwood Assembly Plant would be closed along with ten other GM facilities. The plant produced its last vehicle on August 26, 1987, a Chevrolet Camaro. That date came to be known in Norwood as Black Wednesday. At the time of its closing the plant employed approximately 4,200 workers. Most of the plant was demolished in 1989. The main factory building sat vacant for nearly 10 years. The City of Norwood, having relied on the carmaker for nearly 35 percent of its taxbase, faced economic catastrophe and possible bankruptcy. The City wished to re-develop the site due to its unique and attractive location - at the juncture of an Interstate Highway 562, US Route 22 (Montgomery Road, Ohio State Round 3 and Ohio State Route 561 (Smith Road). Easily accessible from all directions, Norwood saw an opportunity to revitalize itself. Norwood approached GM about demolishing the plant. Initially the carmaker refused.
As its finances grew critical, Norwood threatened General Motors with a lawsuit. Apparently, Norwood had not been collecting taxes on earnings paid to workers on sick-leave or injury-leave since the factory opened in 1923. Only regular payroll taxes were collected. Norwood calculated uncollected taxes as being in the millions of dollars. The carmaker and City settled their dispute, with the site being demolished at the carmaker's expense. The property was turned over to the City for development in exchange for the City dropping its demand for back-taxes. The development of the GM Assembly site helped jump-start Norwood's economy. A series of "flex" businesses were constructed. Where once had stood a single blue-collar car factory, the property was transformed into a mixed-use combination of business - office, light industrial and retail, providing mix-use income to the City.
As of spring 2007 the only remnants of former GM buildings were two parking garages. Those were absorbed into a new office complex along Smith Road (State Rte. 561), with additions of an adult gym/workout center, day-care center, restaurants, banking center and several medium and small businesses. One small street, formerly leading into the GM plant from Montgomery Road (U.S. Route 22), was closed and developed into a mixed use complex named after a major tenant Matrixx Marketing and later Convergys corporation complex. It has been home to those businesses as well as a bank, satellite television provider and medical consulting/MRI/diagnostic laboratory.
As of Fall, 2007, the third and last piece of usable land from the GM plant at the corner of Montgomery Road (U.S. Route 22) and Smith Road (State Rte 3) was developed with plans for a medical arts building.
The successful development of those former GM Assembly properties spurred interest by other developers to choose Norwood for commercial development. One mile away, two open-air shopping malls were built at the former LeBlond Machine Tool Company, located where Interstate 71 and Ohio State Rte 561 (Edwards Road) converge. Those properties were named Rookwood Pavilion and Rookwood Commons and have been very successful as well.
The plant constituted 35% of the City of Norwood's tax base, approximately $2 million annually. As a result many city services were reduced and eliminated, and property tax rates raised. The plant employed 430 Norwood residents at the time of its closing, with the remaining employees mostly living in and around the Cincinnati area. The City of Norwood quickly moved to rehabilitate the site, and by 1991 the Central Parke office project housed in excess of 1,000 workers using nearly 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of office space.
In 2007 there is approximately 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of office and retail space in the area once occupied by the factory.
Norwood was a very old plant that was typical of the old standard model for Fisher Body/Chevrolet assembly facilities; the Fisher Body plant and the Chevrolet assembly plant were on the same piece of property, but were operated by two separate GM Divisions. Fisher Body built the body shell from the firewall back, and shipped it through a hole in their common wall to the Chevrolet plant, fully painted and trimmed, including the interior, minus the instrument panel, dash and floor-mounted components, and front carpets. Chevrolet then assembled all the rest of the trim, chassis, and final assembly components, including all the front end sheet metal, and shipped the finished cars to the dealers. Fisher Body had a huge Paint Shop for the body, and Chevrolet had their own separate Paint Shop for all the front end sheet metal. Norwood ran two shifts, and produced 57 cars per hour, or or 912 per day, and produced only the Camaro until mid-April, 1969, when the Firebird (previously built at Lordstown) was added to their mix.
Janesville Assembly Plant is an automobile factory owned by General Motors located in Janesville, Wisconsin. Opened in 1919, it is the oldest-operating GM plant.
The factory was originally built to produce Samson tractors. These failed to find buyers, so GM switched it to producing Chevrolet automobiles in 1923. It has produced automobiles and pickup trucks over the years, but most recently built full-size SUVs.
Production at the factory was halted during the Great Depression for a short time and there was a famous sit-down strike in 1937. The Janesville Assembly also produced artillery during World War II.
When the United States entered World War II, production of vehicles other than those for the military halted, and auto plants turned to making war machines and material.
GMs Oldsmobile Division took over both of Janesvilles GM operations and started cranking out artillery shells: 16 million shells in three years. Women started working next to older and draft-exempt men. Their motto was: Keep Em Firing.
Three months after the war ended, it was back to business as usual: The UAW struck GM plants nationwide over working conditions and a raise to replace lost war overtime.
The same year, 1946, Gilman Engineering moved into a new building. Last week, Gilman, now a division of a German corporation, announced it would essentially leave Janesville.
In 1949, 2,650 GM employees made 150,000 cars and trucks here, a record. They earned $8.65 million..
In 1953, both Chevy and Fisher Body added second shifts in Janesville. Fisher Body provided the bodies that Chevy workers put on 144,000 cars and 33,850 trucks. Total employment was 3,700.
Employment and plant size in Janesville expanded through the 50s and 60s, although a recession in 1960-61 forced temporary layoffs here. National and local strikes stopped work temporarily, but they resulted in better wages and working conditions.
GMs 100 millionth vehicle
In April 1967, GM makes its 100 millionth vehicletotal for the corporationin Janesville. The blue two-door Chevrolet Caprice is enshrined at Flint, Mich., birthplace of GM and the first city Janesville competed with for jobs.
Janesville has made 6 million of the 100 million vehicles.
In 1969, Chevrolet and Fisher joined to form General Motors Assembly Division, sparking a strike to get the higher wages of the two divisions. Local 95 remains as Janesvilles sole UAW local.
Some 5,800 local GM employees made 198,300 cars and 71,704 pickup trucks in 1971.
The Janesville Assembly was until recently one of three plants producing the GMT900 trucks, such as the Chevrolet Suburban, and began building the next-generation short-wheelbase GMT900 trucks in January 2006. It began producing long wheelbase GMT900 trucks in March of that year and an overtime shift was added to meet demand.
From 1994 until 2009, the plant also produced medium-duty trucks for Isuzu under its partnership with GM.
The plant covers 4,800,000 ft³ (446,000 m³). It employed around 7,000 workers at its peak in 1970, but was down to about 1,200 at its closing in 2009
Fuel prices, the related slow sales of SUVs, and the economy affected the Janesville plant. In April 2008, GM announced that the plant would cut back full-time production to a single shift. Combined with an ongoing employee buy-out program, layoffs totaled around 750 jobs in July 2008.
During GM's 2008 annual shareholder meeting on June 3, 2008, CEO Rick Wagoner announced that the Janesville assembly plant would close by 2010, along with three other GM factories, and could close sooner if the market dictated.[ The cutbacks announced, along with other changes, were expected to save the North American division $1 billion per year starting in 2010.
GM extended its annual summer shutdown an additional two weeks and planned another ten weeks of shutdown for the remainder of 2008 because of excess inventories of SUVs made at the plant.
In June 2008, a study by Steven Deller, a University of Wisconsin-Extension professor, indicated that the plant's closure could result in a ripple effect for the county. Based on a number of estimates and 2007 employment data, his worst case scenario was the loss of 9,000 jobs and nearly half a billion dollars of labor income in Rock County.
In October 2008, GM announced Janesville Assembly would be largely idled December 23, 2008 when production of SUVs would end. A skeleton crew continued to work at Janesville Assembly through June, 2009, completing the Janesville/Isuzu light truck contract.
On January 13, 2010 GM put Janesville Assembly on stand-by to produce new vehicles due to recent increase in demand for GM vehicles.
Framingham Assembly was a General Motoers factory in Framingham, Masschusetts which opened in 1947. The plant cost $12 million and was one of three new plants that year. At one point, the Framingham Assembly plant was the largest automotive manufacturing plant in the state, employing over 1,500 workers from Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire
The first vehicle, produced on 26 February 1948, was a Buick, with 23,388 more produced that first year. The factory was used by "BOP" (Buick, Oldsmobile, Pontiac) and produced 697,574 cars by 1959. In August of that year, it became part of Fisher Body, producing Chevrolet, Pontiac, and Oldsmobile cars.
The factory was re-purposed again in May, 1968, changing from separate Fisher Body and Chevrolet Division operations to a combined operation under the new GM Assembly Division, to produce the Chevrolet Chevelle and Pontiac Le Mans. The Buick Skylark and Oldsmobile Cutlass were added in 1970, and the Pontiac GTO was added the next year. In 1981, the Chevrolet Celebrity and Pontiac 6000 were produced, with the Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera added for the 1983 model year.
The Framingham location was the center of several contentious tug-of-wars between Governor Michael Dukakis and local politician Anthony M. Colonna. After the town refused to sell General Motors a 35-acre town owned piece of property GM desired for the construction of a new paint and plastics facility, Dukakis used the state's power of eminent domain to take the property from the town and sell it to GM so the company could construct the $224 million facility. Colona, head of the town department public works and a powerful local politician, had desired a new, unified DPW facility to constructed on the site. After the taking, state officials and executives at GM claimed that Colonna used his political influence in the community to delay the company's expansion of the facility and drum up support against the company.
When the facility was closed, GM stated that it was due primarily to a slowdown in the economy as well as the relatively small size of the facility. However, GM spoke person Mark Leddy stated that local officials in Framingham were also partially to blame, declaring "You look at your labor climate, your relationship with the community and the quality of product being built at the plant" when explaining why the company chose to shutter the unit.
The plant was idled on October 4, 1982, with a single shift recalled on March 14, 1983. The second shift started again on December 12, 1983. The factory was closed permanently on August 1, 1989.
The facility is now the location of an ADESA automobile, truck, and boat warehouse and live auction site. The company claims that the facility is the largest indoor auction house in the world, capable of housing 10,000 autos and 4,000 people.
Framingham Assembly was located just South of downtown Framingham at Loring Drive and Western Avenue. The address of the ADESA auction site is 63 Western Ave.
Fremont Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Fremont,California. It was the new site for production in the San Francisco area in 1962 with production moved from the older Oakland Assembly. Production continued through 1980 when the plant was closed. Partially demolished (south end and water tower), the remaining plant was refurbished as the NUMMI joint-venture with Toyota.
The 411-acre Fremont plant produced Chevrolet, Pontiac, Buick, and Oldsmobile (Olds 442) cars, as well as GMC Trucks for the Western United States
Baltimore Assembly (properly named Broening Highway General Motors Plant) was a General Motors factory in Baltimore, Maryland. The plant opened in 1935 to produce Chevrolets and closed on May 13, 2005. It was a two-level plant located near the harbor and railroad lines in Baltimore.
Broening Highway Plant history:
Oct. 16, 1934 - Baltimore's Mayor Jackson and Chevrolet representative E. A. Nimnicht broke ground for a new Chevrolet and Fisher Body assembly plant on Broening Highway in the southeast section of Baltimore. The plant was designed to produce 80,000 cars and trucks a year. This enormous undertaking was completed in record time.
March 11, 1935 - The first day of truck production, three trucks were built.
March 26, 1935 - 12 passenger cars were built. The new plant produced 24,885 passenger cars and 6,627 trucks during its first model year. About 2,500 people, many of whom had worked on the construction of the plant, were employed during the first year of operation.
The original plant site covered 45.7 acres and consisted of five buildings, six railroad sidings, driveways, walks, test roads and a parking lot for employees' cars. The principal unit was the assembly building, which covered 13.5 acres of floor space. Chevrolet occupied two-thirds of the building, and Fisher Body one-third.
Early 1942 - Car and truck production was interrupted when the plant was converted to wartime activities. The Chevrolet portion of the plant operated as a military parts depot where parts were received, processed and packaged for shipment around the world. The Fisher Body plant became part of the Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors Corp. and was assigned the task of assembling fuselages for Grumman carrier-based aircraft.
August 1945 - Immediately following the end of the war, the plant was reconverted to automobile and truck production.
1949 - After 11 years of car and truck production, 1 million units had been assembled at the Baltimore plant.
Although Chevrolet cars and trucks had represented the largest portion of the Baltimore plant's production, other car lines also have been manufactured. The versatility of the plant was tested in 1964 when Buicks, Chevrolets, Oldsmobiles and Pontiacs were assembled one after another on the same passenger car line. In the ensuing years, the number of car lines produced has changed several times. GMC Truck and Coach Division shared Baltimore's truck production as early as the 1947 model year.
1968 - The Baltimore plant's two separate General Motors units, Fisher Body Division and Chevrolet Motor Division, were unified under the administration of the General Motors Assembly Division.
May 24, 1978 - Robert K. Bates, plant manager, and Baltimore Mayor William Donald Schaefer drove the plant's 8 millionth vehicle off the assembly line.
1979 - The Baltimore General Motors Assembly Division plant site had increased to more than 160 acres with nearly 2.5 million square feet of building floor space. The plant employed nearly 7,000 employees.
March 31, 1984 - The Baltimore plant saw its last car produced. The plant began a retooling process in preparation for its current products, the Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari mid-size vans.
August 1984 - The plant was now a part of the General Motors Truck and Bus Group and began production of the new vans. More recently, the plant became part of the General Motors Truck Group, continuing to build Astros and Safaris.
1984-2005 - The plant and its surrounding buildings grew to sit on 183 acres, with 3.1 million square feet of floor space in the assembly building. Baltimore Assembly built its 12 millionth vehicle in 2000 since opening in 1935. In 2004, the plant celebrated 20 years of making the Chevy Astro and GMC Safari
May 13, 2005 - GM's Broening Highway plant shuttered permanently, ending a 70-year-tradition in Baltimore.
Baltimore Assembly scored a major coup with the 1984 decision to assemble the Chevrolet Astro/GMC Safara minivans there. The rival Dodge Caravan was selling briskly, but the truck-like GM vans were larger than most of the mini-vans then coming into production. The GM vans filled a unique market for a midsize van with large interior space and very good towing capacity. The vans were periodically updated with revised interiors and exterior styling during the very long production run. Both two-wheel drive (M van) and all-wheel drive (L-van) models were produced. Initial production was a short wheel base van, with an extended wheelbase model introduced mid-production. The extended van proved so popular that the short version was discontinued in the mid-1990s. The plant closed its doors after the final shift on May 13, 2005. In total, approximately 3,200,000 Astro and Safari vans were produced at the Baltimore plant. GM has since sold the site to the developer Duke Realty, who has demolished the old plant and is rebuilding the site as an industrial park called the Chesapeake Commerce Center.
Doraville Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory in Doraville, Georgia. The plant opened in 1947 and closed on 26 September 2008 as part of the company's cost-cutting measures. According to an article that appeared in the Atlanta Journal Constitution on January 28, 2010 , New Broad Street Doraville, LLC, a development company, has executed a purchase contract with General Motors to purchase the former plant with plans to build a mixed-use, transit oriented development.
Lakewood Assembly was a General Motors automobile factory near Atlanta, Georgia.. Opened in 1927, the plant was the first that the UAWstaged a strike against in 1936.
Initially, Lakewood was referred to as 'Atlanta' and coded as '8' on vehicle VIN plates, changing to 'A' when GM reshuffled their codes for 1953. For 1972, code 'A' Atlanta was now referred to as the Lakewood plant.
Lakewood assembled Chevrolets, Pontiacs, Oldsmobile and Buicks at various points in their history, and also began assembling Chevrolet and GMC trucks from 1929 through at least 1986. The 1990 model year Chevrolet Caprice B-Body model line was the last vehicle produced at Lakewood, the plant closing its doors on August 6. At the time of its demolition some years later, Lakewood was a 2,600,000-square-foot (242,000 m2) facility.